Response for project 199305600: Demonstration Of Captive Salmo

Comment on proposed FY 2006 budget

We desire renewal of project 1993-056-00 in FY 2006. The proposed budget of $1,468,100 is consistent with our expectations.

Accomplishments since the last review

Several RM&E metrics apply to this project. Answers are by research objective. 1: i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captive-reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in natal habitats. ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. 2: i) Determined that sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for imprinting. Results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. 3: i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. 4: i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenutated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of compound vaccine against BKD in fall Chinook and iii) testing of broodstock antibiotic treatment in combination with compound vaccine against BKD. 5: i) Determined that close inbreeding in Chinook salmon led to substantial reductions in marine survival; progeny of half sibs survived at 90% the rate of noninbred fish and progeny of full sibs survived at only 15% the rate of noninbred fish. ii) For broods 2002 and 2003, we established a breeding design with 30 half- and 120 full-sib families of Chinook salmon to test the generality of the results. The project has published 10 peer-reviewed articles since 2003.

FY 2006 goals and anticipated accomplishments

Several of the RM&E metrics listed apply to this research project. Goals through FY 2006 are listed below by research Objective. Objective 1: i) Evaluate the effects of seawater rearing temperature on the spawn timing and reproductive success of naturally spawning captively reared Chinook salmon. Objective 2: i) Evaluate the importance of home-water characteristics and exposure timing and duration for successful imprinting and homing of ESA listed sockeye salmon, ii) continue development and application of molecular assay for imprinting success in sockeye and coho salmon. Objective 3: i) Evaluate effects of seawater rearing temperature on growth, spawning time, fecundity, and fertility of gametes in female spring Chinook salmon, and ii) evaluate effects of growth regimes designed to reduce early male maturity on fecundity and age of maturity in female spring Chinook salmon Objective 4: i) Develop an integrated disease management plan for bacterial kidney disease (BKD), targeting vertical transmission, ii) test BKD management treatments for both prophylactic and therapeutic value, and iii) develop and test BKD treatments that elicit effective host response and minimize environmental risks. Objective 5: i) Replicate experimental inbreeding in locally adapted University of Washington Hatchery (UWH) Chinook salmon, comparing survival and growth of half-sib inbred and full-sib inbred lines to those of a randomly mated control line, ii) recover marked adults returning to UWH, establish 2005-brood experimental families from crosses among these adults, and iii) coded-wire tag and release 2005-brood experimental fish with family-specific tags for evaluation of survival to adulthood.

Subbasin planning

How is this project consistent with subbasin plans?

This project was funded under the Mainstem/Systemwide Province in FY03 and provides science-based guidance for BPA-funded captive broodstock programs in the Salmon River, Grande Ronde River, and Tucannon River Subbasins. The project addresses critical needs identified in the Northwest Power Planning Council’s 2000 Fish and Wildife Program, the ISAB Review of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation (ISAB 2003-3 Supplementation Report), and the 2004 Updated Proposed Action for the FCRPS Biological Opinion Remand. Linkages to these documents are described below.

How do goals match subbasin plan priorities?

The ISAB Review of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation (ISAB 2003-3 Supplementation Report) identified several risks of supplementation, which includes captive broodstocks. The captive broodstock research project directly addresses i) genetic risks by quantifying the effects of inbreeding and inbreeding depression, ii) disease risks by developing methods to control or prevent bacterial kidney disease, and iii) demographic risks by quantifying the reproductive success of captively reared Chinook salmon and developing methods to correct deficiencies in maturational development. The ISAB concluded that “…supplementation be implemented in an experimental adaptive management framework.” This project provides critical information for determining the benefits and risks of current captive broodstock and conservation hatchery practices. The direct linkages with the captive broodstock projects through the Technical Oversight Committee Process ensures that captive broodstock programs have the latest and best scientific information available to adaptively manage the programs. The project addresses the need stated in the NWPPC 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program that fish reared in hatcheries for the purpose of recovery clearly benefit the population. The research project benefits the Fish and Wildlife Program by providing scientifically based recommendations on how best to culture and reintroduce salmon for restoration purposes. The 2004 Updated Proposed Action for the FCRPS Biological Opinion Remand identifies two hatchery strategies: 1) implementation of a safety-net program to avoid extinction, and 2) reduce potentially harmful effects of artificial production to aid recovery through hatchery reform. These strategies will continue to rely heavily on the research results generated by the captive broodstock research project. The project will continue to guide the methods of intervention, culture, and reintroduction for safety-net programs.

Other comments

Our summary of past accomplishments and goals are by Objective as proposed in the most recent (2003) Mainstem/Systemwide RFP. The metrics that apply to this research project fall under the RM&E category.