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Objectives

Objectives (from 2004 subbasin plan and data)
>70% cover should be native speciesYellow Warbler
>70%cover in total cover {shrub (<3 m, 10 ft) and subcanopy (>3m, 10 ft) layers}Yellow Warbler
Ability to build lodges: Mild or no annual or seasonal water level fluctuationsAmerican Beaver
Ability to build lodges: Slow water flowAmerican Beaver
Adequate food sources with acorns important in winter and early spring and pine cones and seeds in late summer and fallWestern Gray Squirrel
Adequate habitat within home range -- In Klickitat County 95% home ranges from 10-187 ha (mean 73 ha) for males and 3-44 ha (mean 21 ha) for femalesWestern Gray Squirrel
Adequate numbers of snags (1 or more of adequate size)Lewis' Woodpecker
Artificially introduce Large Woody DebrisAll aquatic focal species
Assess significance of predation by native birdsAll aquatic focal species
Average cover of native herbaceous plants > 10%Brewer's Sparrow
Bare ground >20%Brewer's Sparrow
Bunchgrass >25 cm (10 in) tallGrasshopper Sparrow
Conduct spawning surveys or?All aquatic focal species
Contiguous canopy cover (mean = 60%)Western Gray Squirrel
Continue research on kelt reconditioning to identify conditions that improve survivalSteelhead
Create habitats that provide the functional attributes of grasslands.
Decrease sources of fine sedimentAll aquatic focal species
Decrease sources of fine sediment from erosion, especially on sloping soils, where cover crops and residue are lackingAll aquatic focal species
Decrease stand density of ponderosa pine.
Decrease stem density of ponderosa pine.
Determine abundance, distribution, and habitat use of rearing juvenilesCoho
Determine abundance, distribution, and habitat use of rearing juvenilesFall Chinook
Determine abundance, distribution, and habitat use of rearing juvenilesPacific Lamprey
Determine abundance, distribution, and habitat use of rearing juvenilesSteelhead
Develop a temperature TMDL for the subbasin and implement specific actions to reduce exposure to elevated water temperaturesCoho
Develop a temperature TMDL for the subbasin and implement specific actions to reduce exposure to elevated water temperaturesFall Chinook
Develop a temperature TMDL for the subbasin and implement specific actions to reduce exposure to elevated water temperaturesSteelhead
Develop TMDLs for contaminants, including identifying remedial actions.Coho
Develop TMDLs for contaminants, including identifying remedial actions.Fall Chinook
Develop TMDLs for contaminants, including identifying remedial actions.Steelhead
Diameter at breast height (21-58 cm, mean = 40 cm; 8.2-22.6 in, mean = 15.7 in)Western Gray Squirrel
Diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 30 cmLewis' Woodpecker
Edge and small patch size (heterogeneity)Yellow Warbler
Eliminate dredging.Coho
Eliminate dredging.Fall Chinook
Eliminate dredging.Steelhead
Enact a moratorium on additional mainstem water withdrawals and quantify the effects of irrigation withdrawalsCoho
Enact a moratorium on additional mainstem water withdrawals and quantify the effects of irrigation withdrawalsFall Chinook
Enact a moratorium on additional mainstem water withdrawals and quantify the effects of irrigation withdrawalsSteelhead
Encourage beaver colonizationAll aquatic focal species
Evaluate genetics of Rock Creek steelheadSteelhead
Explicitly include desired carcass numbers within escapement goals to benefit ecosystem processes in population/harvest management decisions.All aquatic focal species
Fertilize streams with artificial carcassesAll aquatic focal species
Fund Kelt reconditioning in Rock Creek. Determine breeding success of Kelts.All aquatic focal species
Harvest of 5kg/ha, target exploitation rates equal 21% of fish 42-60" in sport fisheries and 25% of fish 45-60" in commercial fisheries, increase broodstock by 10% every three yearsWhite Sturgeon
High foliage density of sagebrushBrewer's Sparrow
Identify and correct adult steelhead fallback conditions at dams.Steelhead
Identify areas and make improvements in juvenile passage that do not conflict with salmonid passage needs.Pacific Lamprey
Identify areas for passage improvements.Pacific Lamprey
Identify areas vulnerable to stranding.Pacific Lamprey
Identify contaminants and the effects on lampreyPacific Lamprey
Identify contaminants in the sediment and water and the effects of the contaminants on salmonCoho
Identify contaminants in the sediment and water and the effects of the contaminants on salmonFall Chinook
Identify contaminants in the sediment and water and the effects of the contaminants on salmonSteelhead
Implement appropriate practices which leave sources of Large Woody Debris to naturally enter and remain in the systemAll aquatic focal species
Implement Dry Cropland or Range and Pastureland Resource Management Systems (RMS) in Gilliam and Sherman counties in conjunction with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as per the April 2004 Biological Opinion. (All but the last two strategies relate to the proscribed RMS.)All aquatic focal species
Implement habitat restoration actions for pacific lamprey.All aquatic focal species
Implement habitat restoration actions under Subbasin Plan.All aquatic focal species
Implement off road vehicle management actions that reduce fine sediment inputs.All aquatic focal species
Implement road management actions that reduce fine sediment inputs.All aquatic focal species
Implement sustainable agricultural and forest practices, improve road management. Improve watershed managementAll aquatic focal species
Implement upland management practices that mimic natural runoff and sediment production.All aquatic focal species
Improve adult migrationCoho
Improve adult migrationFall Chinook
Improve adult migrationSteelhead
Improve adult migration conditions.Coho
Improve adult migration conditions.Fall Chinook
Improve adult migration conditions.Steelhead
Improve adult passage at dams.Pacific Lamprey
Improve adult passage conditions by restoring features of the normative hydrographs to improve migration conditions.Coho
Improve adult passage conditions by restoring features of the normative hydrographs to improve migration conditions.Fall Chinook
Improve adult passage conditions by restoring features of the normative hydrographs to improve migration conditions.Steelhead
Improve chances of return migration to the ocean and to spawning areas.Coho
Improve chances of return migration to the ocean and to spawning areas.Fall Chinook
Improve chances of return migration to the ocean and to spawning areas.Steelhead
Improve floodplain connectivityAll aquatic focal species
Improve juvenile passage conditions at The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams though water management actions, including extending summer spillCoho
Improve juvenile passage conditions at The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams though water management actions, including extending summer spillFall Chinook
Improve juvenile passage conditions at The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams though water management actions, including extending summer spillSteelhead
Improve juvenile passage conditions at The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams.Coho
Improve juvenile passage conditions at The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams.Fall Chinook
Improve juvenile passage conditions at The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams.Steelhead
Improve juvenile passage conditions in the subbasin’s mainstemCoho
Improve juvenile passage conditions in the subbasin’s mainstemFall Chinook
Improve juvenile passage conditions in the subbasin’s mainstemSteelhead
Improve passage ratesAll aquatic focal species
Improve water qualityCoho
Improve water qualityFall Chinook
Improve water qualitySteelhead
Improve water quality by reducing exposure to contaminants.Coho
Improve water quality by reducing exposure to contaminants.Fall Chinook
Improve water quality by reducing exposure to contaminants.Steelhead
In areas of inappropriate grazing, improve vegetation and microbiotic crusts.
Increase abundance of salmonid populations to reduce proportion of predation due to native spAll aquatic focal species
Increase available habitat in mainstem floodplains, especially urbanized floodplains. Reduce conflicts with infrastructure, set population targets based on desired functions and population connectivity.All aquatic focal species
Increase average dbh and decrease understory density.
Increase extent and distribution of perennial habitatAll aquatic focal species
Increase first-year survival of naturally spawned WS in the LMM Columbia RiverWhite Sturgeon
Increase floodplain and channel roughnessAll aquatic focal species
Increase kelt survival and repeat spawner success. Increase steelhead productivity.All aquatic focal species
Increase large woody debris presence in riparian buffers.
Increase LMM Columbia River WS populations to levels supporting reasonable harvest opportunitiesWhite Sturgeon
Increase quality and quantity of habitat for yellow warblers.Yellow Warbler
Increase quality habitat for grasshopper sparrow.Grasshopper Sparrow
Increase quality of habitat for Brewer’s sparrow.Brewer's Sparrow
Increase quality of western gray squirrel habitat.Western Gray Squirrel
Increase quality of white-headed woodpecker habitat.White-Headed Woodpecker
Increase quantity and quality of habitat for Lewis’ woodpecker.Lewis' Woodpecker
Increase quantity of habitat for Brewer’s sparrow.Brewer's Sparrow
Increase quantity of habitat for grasshopper sparrow.Grasshopper Sparrow
Increase quantity of western gray squirrel habitat.Western Gray Squirrel
Increase quantity of white-headed woodpecker habitat.White-Headed Woodpecker
Increase spawning success of white sturgeon in the LMM Columbia RiverWhite Sturgeon
Increase white sturgeon population abundance in the LMM Columbia RiverWhite Sturgeon
Increase white sturgeon population abundance in the LMM Columbia River, especially the population in Priest Rapids Pool which is likely dying outWhite Sturgeon
Increase winter minima temperature and decrease summer maxima temperaturesAll aquatic focal species
Increased adult survival at mainstem Columbia dams for repeat spawners.All aquatic focal species
Inventory existing and potential beaver habitat, include reintroduction of beaver into restoration actions.All aquatic focal species
Investigate auxiliary passage systems, similar to those being researched at Bonneville Dam.Pacific Lamprey
Investigate the efficacy of the planned installation of removable spillway weirs to aid in directing migrants to safer passage routes.Coho
Investigate the efficacy of the planned installation of removable spillway weirs to aid in directing migrants to safer passage routes.Fall Chinook
Investigate the efficacy of the planned installation of removable spillway weirs to aid in directing migrants to safer passage routes.Steelhead
Large unbroken patches >40 ha (100 ac)Grasshopper Sparrow
Lengthen fire cycles and reduce loss of Brewer’s sparrow habitat by catastrophic fire.Brewer's Sparrow
Less reliance on peak flowsCoho
Less reliance on peak flowsFall Chinook
Less reliance on peak flowsSteelhead
Limit expansion of invasive non-native plants and reduce occurrence.
Limit inappropriate mortality from hunting.Black Tailed Deer
Limit inappropriate mortality from hunting.Mule deer
Low stream channel gradient: Stream channel gradients of 6%or less have optimum value as beaver habitat; streams of 15%or more are uninhabitableAmerican Beaver
Maintain current ephemeral wetlands in natural condition and where possible restore disturbed areas to natural function.
Make continued progress toward tribal goals to halt declining trends in Pacific lamprey; increase to naturally sustainable levels that also support tribal harvest opportunities.Pacific Lamprey
Make continued progress toward tribal goals to halt declining trends in salmon populations, including steelhead, coho, and fall chinook, to naturally sustainable levels that also support tribal harvest opportunities. Make progress toward protecting and rebuilding ESA-listed steelhead and fall chinook.Coho
Make continued progress toward tribal goals to halt declining trends in salmon populations, including steelhead, coho, and fall chinook, to naturally sustainable levels that also support tribal harvest opportunities. Make progress toward protecting and rebuilding ESA-listed steelhead and fall chinook.Fall Chinook
Make continued progress toward tribal goals to halt declining trends in salmon populations, including steelhead, coho, and fall chinook, to naturally sustainable levels that also support tribal harvest opportunities. Make progress toward protecting and rebuilding ESA-listed steelhead and fall chinook.Steelhead
Mean sagebrush height > 64cm (24 in)Brewer's Sparrow
Minimize juvenile strandingCoho
Minimize juvenile strandingFall Chinook
Minimize juvenile strandingSteelhead
Minimize juvenile stranding; start by identifying areas vulnerable to strandingCoho
Minimize juvenile stranding; start by identifying areas vulnerable to strandingFall Chinook
Minimize juvenile stranding; start by identifying areas vulnerable to strandingSteelhead
Minimize stranding.Pacific Lamprey
Moderately deep litter and sparse coverage of woody vegetationGrasshopper Sparrow
Monitor fishways regularly at the dams for compliance with adult fish passage criteriaCoho
Monitor fishways regularly at the dams for compliance with adult fish passage criteriaFall Chinook
Monitor fishways regularly at the dams for compliance with adult fish passage criteriaSteelhead
Nest tree age (69-275 yr, mean = 108 yr)Western Gray Squirrel
Optimal height ≥ 9.1 m, range used 1.5-51 mLewis' Woodpecker
Patches of sagebrush cover 10-30%Brewer's Sparrow
Patches should be undisturbed (exotic grass detrimental; vulnerable in agricultural habitats from mowing, spraying, etc.).Grasshopper Sparrow
Permanent source of waterAmerican Beaver
PredationCoho
PredationFall Chinook
PredationSteelhead
Presence of food source: Herbaceous plants include aspen, willow, cottonwood, alder and aquatic vegetationAmerican Beaver
Presence of food source: Woody stems cut by beavers are usually less than 7.6 to 10.1 cm (3 to 4 inches) dbhAmerican Beaver
Protect all riparian buffers from inappropriate timber harvesting.
Protect juvenile salmon migrants.Coho
Protect juvenile salmon migrants.Fall Chinook
Protect juvenile salmon migrants.Steelhead
Protect migrating adult salmon.Coho
Protect migrating adult salmon.Fall Chinook
Protect migrating adult salmon.Steelhead
Protect rearing habitatCoho
Protect rearing habitatFall Chinook
Protect rearing habitatSteelhead
Protect rearing habitat.Coho
Protect rearing habitat.Fall Chinook
Protect rearing habitat.Steelhead
Protect remaining deep-soil shrub steppe sites
Provide quality habitat for deer.Black Tailed Deer
Provide quality habitat for deer.Mule deer
Provide suitable habitat for beaver where they were historically found.American Beaver
Rebuild and maintain healthy fall chinook populations. Rebuild ESA listed Snake River fall chinook to levels that support increased fishing opportunitiesFall Chinook
Rebuild and maintain healthy steelhead populations. Rebuild ESA listed upriver steelhead stocks to levels that support increased fishing opportunities.Steelhead
Reconnect 100% of floodplain side channels in this Assessment UnitAll aquatic focal species
Reconnect side channelsAll aquatic focal species
Reconnecting currently fragmented wildlife habitats typesAll terrestrial focal species
Reduce exposure to contaminants.Pacific Lamprey
Reduce exposure to elevated water temperatures.Coho
Reduce exposure to elevated water temperatures.Fall Chinook
Reduce exposure to elevated water temperatures.Steelhead
Reduce fragmentation of white sturgeon populationWhite Sturgeon
Reduce mortality of food base (insects), needed by yellow warblers, from chemical applications.Lewis' Woodpecker
Reduce mortality of food base (insects), needed by yellow warblers, from chemical applications.Yellow Warbler
Reduce non-native species presence and reestablish native plant communities.
Reduce off road vehicle damage in high trespass areas.
Reduce population levels in Mainstem ColAll aquatic focal species
Reduce predation in LMM Columbia River, especially on egg and larval stage WS, but also sub-yearling WSWhite Sturgeon
Reduce pressure to western gray squirrels from California ground squirrels.Western Gray Squirrel
Reduce Summer High TemperaturesAll aquatic focal species
Reduce Temp to near pre-settlement conditionsAll aquatic focal species
Reduce temperatures to near pre-settlement conditionsAll aquatic focal species
Reduced non-native predatorsAll aquatic focal species
Re-establish and/or enhance native vegetation on floodplainAll aquatic focal species
Relocate floodplain infrastructure, roads; improve maintenance, rehabilitate, decommission as approriateAll aquatic focal species
Remove lost fishing gear by identifying locations of lost gear removing it; quantify the impact of lost fishing gearCoho
Remove lost fishing gear by identifying locations of lost gear removing it; quantify the impact of lost fishing gearFall Chinook
Remove lost fishing gear by identifying locations of lost gear removing it; quantify the impact of lost fishing gearSteelhead
Restore and protect remaining riparian buffers from conversion.
Restore beaver populations to historical levels.American Beaver
Restore Brewer’s sparrow population numbers to historic levels.Brewer's Sparrow
Restore coho populations.Coho
Restore ecological functioning and biological integrity to these two watershedsAll aquatic focal species
Restore ecologically functional floodplain/riparian wetland habitats.
Restore features of the normative hydrograph to improve migration conditions.Coho
Restore features of the normative hydrograph to improve migration conditions.Fall Chinook
Restore features of the normative hydrograph to improve migration conditions.Steelhead
Restore habitats that provide the function attributes of shrub steppe and grasslands.
Restore historical hydrologic regimeAll aquatic focal species
Restore historical hydrologic regime and Increase extent and distribution of perennial habitatAll aquatic focal species
Restore Lewis’ woodpecker population numbers to historic levels.Lewis' Woodpecker
Restore LMM Columbia River population abundance and productivityWhite Sturgeon
Restore LMM Columbia River population abundance and productivity to levels that can sustain reasonable harvestWhite Sturgeon
Restore more natural fire cycles to increase mean age class of shrub steppe and restore areas of complete shrub loss where it has been altered by fire.
Restore native plant communities.
Restore native riparian tree and shrub habitats degraded by inappropriate grazing.
Restore normative hydrographCoho
Restore normative hydrographFall Chinook
Restore normative hydrographSteelhead
Restore normative hydrograph will improve migration conditions.Coho
Restore normative hydrograph will improve migration conditions.Fall Chinook
Restore normative hydrograph will improve migration conditions.Steelhead
Restore Pacific lamprey populations. Attain self-sustaining natural production of Pacific lamprey that provides for fishing opportunities at traditional locations.Pacific Lamprey
Restore riparian habitat quality by increasing native vegetation in degraded riparian habitat.
Restore steelhead population abundance, productivity and spatial distribution to sustainable levelsAll aquatic focal species
Restore steelhead population abundance, productivity and spatial distribution to viable, harvestable and sustainable levels over the next 30 years.Steelhead
Restore viable P. Pine populations to upstream Riparian Zones over the next 20 years (upper forest )All aquatic focal species
Restore yellow warbler population numbers to historic levels.Yellow Warbler
Restore/supplement fish populations such that escapement is sufficient in number to provide adequate carcasses.All aquatic focal species
Retain decadent and other important wildlife trees.Western Gray Squirrel
Retain decadent and other important wildlife trees.White-Headed Woodpecker
Retain existing tracts of late seral forests and reduce future fragmentation.
Retain late seral stands and large decadent trees.
Screen all irrigation pumpsCoho
Screen all irrigation pumpsFall Chinook
Screen all irrigation pumpsSteelhead
Shrub cover <10%Grasshopper Sparrow
Shrub layer cover 30-60%of total cover (includes shrubs and small saplings), height > 2m (6.5 ft)Yellow Warbler
Slow stream flow, restore water table, repair stream banks, restore riparian vegetation and reconnect floodplain.
Stop the reduction in the quantity and quality of all types of terresterial and riverine habitat that the wildlife focal and other species need to flourish.All terrestrial focal species
Study and assess sources/attribute relative contributions of fine sediment.All aquatic focal species
Study and evaluate sources and attribute relative sources of fine sedimentAll aquatic focal species
Study and monitor groundwater withdrawals in areaAll aquatic focal species
Study presence of pathogens in juveniles and adults during high temperatures.All aquatic focal species
Study specific habitat relationships for lamprey.Pacific Lamprey
Study/characterize productivity in relation to water quality parametersAll aquatic focal species
Study/Characterize productivity in relation to water quality parameters.All aquatic focal species
Subcanopy layer contributing >40%of the total coverYellow Warbler
Support Corps studies of fish passage at mainstem Columbia dams and evaluate other habitat conditions for improved survival in mainstem Columbia habitatAll aquatic focal species
Support Corps studies of fish passage at mainstem Columbia dams. Evaluate habitat conditions for survival in the mainstem Columbia habitat.All aquatic focal species
Support efforts to reduce predator population levels in mainstem ColumbiaAll aquatic focal species
Tree canopy closure ≤ 30%(closure exceeding 75%is unsuitable)Lewis' Woodpecker
Understory cover ≥ 50 %, not as vital in riparian habitatsLewis' Woodpecker
Vegetation complexity with bunchgrass cover >15% and >60% total grass coverGrasshopper Sparrow
Vegetative composition dominated by native bunchgrassesGrasshopper Sparrow
Within 180 m (600 ft) of waterWestern Gray Squirrel

Goals and strategies under development

Limiting factors & actions

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Click to display the 35 occurrences of impairments by limiting factor affecting multiple species and 6 recommended actions. Click bars for more detail.

External Resources

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